What is an addiction to substances? Criteria for substance use disorders and other mental health issues can be found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the authoritative text used to make diagnoses. The list of drug use disorders and the requirements for diagnosing them have undergone some substantial revisions in the most recent edition of DSM, known as DSM-5.
Substance abuse and substance dependence were two categories in the DSM-IV, the most recent iteration. These two classifications are combined into one named “substance use disorder” in the DSM-5.
Someone may have a drug use disorder if substance use significantly impairs their lives, resulting in issues with their health, incapacity, or inability to fulfill their obligations at work, family, or school.
Criteria for Substance Use Disorder
Depending on how many of the diagnostic requirements are met, substance use disorders are categorized as mild, moderate, or severe. The 11 DSM-5 criteria for an addiction are as follows:
- Use-related interpersonal or social issues: Conflicts or issues in relationships have resulted from substance use.
- Withdrawal: You go through withdrawal symptoms when you stop using the drug.
- Hazardous use: You overdosed, drove while intoxicated, blacked out, or used the substance in other ways that endanger you or others.
- Used larger amounts/longer: You’ve started using the drug more frequently or for longer periods of time.
- Neglected major roles to use: Because of substance abuse, you haven’t fulfilled your obligations at job, school, or home.
- Craving: You have felt the need to use the drug.
- Much time spent using: The substance is something you use a lot of.
- Activities given up to use: In order to utilize the substance, you have abandoned activities you formerly enjoyed or skipped them entirely.
- Physical or psychological problems related to use: Your substance usage has resulted in mental health problems like depression or anxiety as well as physical health difficulties like liver damage or lung cancer.
- Tolerance: You need to consume more of the substance to have the same effect since you have become used to it.
- Giving up some activities: In order to utilize the substance, you have abandoned activities you formerly enjoyed or skipped them entirely.
If you meet two or three of the criteria, you have a mild substance use disorder. If you meet two or more of the criteria within a 12-month period, you are diagnosed with a substance use disorder. If you satisfy four to five criteria, your substance use disorder is moderate; if you meet six or more, it is severe.
Types of Substance Use Disorders
Each substance use disorder has its own unique classification. Below are the six most prevalent drug use disorders in world.
- Alcohol use disorder
- Tobacco use disorder
- Cannabis use disorder
- Stimulant use disorder
- Hallucinogen use disorder
- Opioid use disorder